In this article, we will consider the basic principles of using the Wowza Streaming Engine to build a media portal. In order not to complicate the understanding, we will not address the issues of billing and monetization of the service, as well as deeply analyze the technical side.
Below is the general scheme of the media portal, as well as the processing of a user request to view a stream or video clip. As you can see, the Wowza Streaming Engine media server is only an executive mechanism, providing the transmission of video and audio data to end-user devices, and not the central part of the portal responsible for the logic of user interaction. Wowza Streaming Engine does not work under the control of a website engine or database server and does not provide a user interface. However, it is he who makes it possible to solve the problem of delivering streaming video content to user client devices
Many people have the impression that the media server software should provide a complete list of tools for creating a portal, including the end user interface, business logic, and video content management CMS. But this is not so, and for the different parts of the portal are responsible for the individual components, which, however, integrate perfectly with each other. So, what the Wowza Streaming Engine does not provide:
The Wowza Streaming Engine media server is designed to perform the following:
Let’s take a closer look at how data is processed on the Wowza server.
For example, let’s focus on one of the most common scenarios, with the original UDP Multicast SPTS stream with MPEG-2 compression. Such an initial stream for broadcasting on the Internet is not unique. Firstly, a high bitrate, and secondly, UDP cannot be transmitted through external networks without loss and often providers completely block the transmission of UDP packets, and thirdly, the stream encoded by the MPEG2 video codec cannot be played by the player on a web page or mobile device. All these parameters of the source stream can be converted by the Wowza server, and you can also create several additional Live-streams with lower quality parameters. This will help transfer content over narrow channels of communication (including with variable bandwidth).
Transcoding and transmuxing the stream format using the Wowza Streaming Engine:
You can learn more about transcoding in Wowza by clicking on this link.Record of stream and view video files
Wowza Streaming Engine allows you to record a live stream to an MP4 file, which you can later view directly from the Wowza server or copy for editing, sharing, archiving, etc. It supports recording with automatic generation of fragments in time and recording of the transcoded stream, in several qualities at once. Viewing VOD content (MP4 video files) on the Internet directly from Wowza using the video streaming protocol (streaming) has many advantages compared to viewing with placing a file on a regular web server using conventional downloading and progressive downloading methods. First of all, this is control over network resources, since each user in this case cannot consume network resources more than the file encoding bitrate. This eliminates peaks in the consumption of network resources characteristic of downloading files from a regular web server. The security of the content from unauthorized downloading is much higher, since the file cannot be downloaded to the entire viewing device. Significantly improves the user viewing convenience, so VOD content can be given in the form of a multi-bitrate stream (ABR). In this case, the player or the viewing device automatically selects the correct bitrate for playback in accordance with the current network connection conditions. Wowza will also allow, if necessary, to add subtitles and several language tracks with translation. There is support for working with a network drive S3, Azure, etc.
Protection against unauthorized viewing
In many cases, the media content of the site should be available for viewing only for authorized users. Access to media content is carried out through a link to a resource running the Wowza Streaming Engine and a simple copy of this link should, at a minimum, not lead to anyone who wants to view the live stream or vod video file. Wowza provides several ways to protect content, namely:
You can find out the technical details of the implementation of a particular content protection method in our article.
Load Scaling and Redundancy.
The Wowza Streaming Engine license has no restrictions on the number of streams and users viewing the stream. The maximum number of viewers is determined by the server hardware resources, resolution/bitrate of stream encoding, and, first of all, network bandwidth (server network card and Internet connection port). Since almost always broadcasting on the Internet is based on the unicast principle, the number of viewers supported by the server can be calculated using a simple formula:
Bit rate * maximum number of viewers at the same time <80% of network bandwidth (the lower of the network card or Internet port).
Bitrate values for typical stream resolutions:
|Stream resolution||Stream bitrate|
|8K||21 – 50 Mbps|
|4K||13 – 34 Mbps|
|1080p||3 – 6 Mbps|
|720p||1.5 – 4 Mbps|
|420p||0.5 – 2 Mbps|
|360p||0.4 – 1 Mbps|
If the task is to build a scalable system that is designed for a huge number of simultaneous views, then there are two possible approaches: create your own streaming infrastructure or use third-party content delivery services - CDN (including social networks YouTube, VK, etc. as a CDN):
A component of the Wowza Streaming Engine is a special module - Wowza Dynamic Load Balancing AddOn, which allows you to create your own content delivery infrastructure - in fact, a private CDN network. Consider creating your own infrastructure in order to understand how several Wowza servers can work as a single solution.
The figure above shows the general scheme of the system during load balancing. Groups of subscriber devices are conditionally divided and are not rigidly tied by their type to a specific server. Initially, a request for a stream is sent to Edge with the Wowza Dynamic Load Balancing AddOn, regardless of where the content consumer is located or what viewing device it has. Wowza Dynamic Load Balancing AddOn accepts the request, analyzes and determines through which Edge server the user will receive the stream for viewing. Thanks to this approach, the system can be scaled horizontally by simply adding Edge servers. Additionally, system redundancy is provided - in the event of a failure of one of the Edge servers, all users are redirected to others.You can learn more about Wowza Dynamic Load Balancing AddOn here.